Prosper Wanner Diagnostics # 2: Art huts, a work of contemporary art essence of sustainable development

Second portrait carried out in the context of the 3 diagnostics of innovative heritage cooperation on behalf of the AGCCPF PACA. We want to go beyond the disciplinary cuts and the decontextualisation of objects that are still too dominant in the exercise of heritage professions and the elaboration of collections. Extract Charter of the Mediterranean common heritage. AGCCPF PACA 2000. Preamble the Musée Gassendi, located in Digne-les-Bains, has incorporated in its collections The contemporary works of art "refuges d'art" located in the geological reserve of Haute Provence [1]. "Refuges d'art" is a collection of built-in barns, farmhouses, chapels – the restoration of which includes the creation of artist Andy Goldsworthy. The installation of these works outside the walls of the museum, their already effective attendance, the increasing interest of the public and the potential of economic development they represent, oblige the museum to qualify their accessibility in order to maintain the spirit of the project. Jean Pierre Brovelli, hiking guide and partner of the project, which accompanies those who wish to connect on foot the different places of "Art havens". "Private public" cooperation characterizes this process.  The first was the one developed between the museum and the Haute Provence Reserve (Association Loi 1901). The diagnosis proposes to situate this cooperation between Jean Pierre Brovelli and the museum, to understand the reasons and to measure the first results obtained. In order to measure and compare the impact of these private public cooperation, it is essential to use a common indicator system.  The diagnosis refers above all to the new performance indicators of the state vis-a-vis the taxpayer, the user and the citizen used in the framework of the Organic law relating to the laws of finance of first August 2001-LOLF. He proposed to answer the following questions: What were the reasons for this cooperation? In a context of controlling public spending, does it help to qualify the accessibility of works in open access? Is it performing for the museum? For Jean-Pierre Brovelli? Does it contribute to the economic development of this alpine territory? Enrolled it into sustainable development?

Name Musée Gassendi Jean-Pierre Brovelli
Status Musée de France Sole proprietorship
Location Digne-les-Bains Seyne-Les-Alpes
Status person met Conservative Independent
Number of employees 10 0
Visitors number 2007 10,000 Nc
Resources 2007 EUR 1.4 million Nc

Virtual Expo in 2007, the Association of curators of the public collections of France section Paca (AGCCPF Paca) has launched an international invitation to young graphic designers from schools or in the course of training to dialogue on the news of Stakes in their trades. Curators and graphic designers are looking for the most suitable forms for the new forms of cooperation indispensable in the symbolic space today. The guest of the Virtual Expo 2007 was Marion Arnoux. She has just come out of the design school of Saint-Etienne and participates in the experimental structure IRB Laboratory, under the responsibility of Denis Coueignoux and Ruedi Baur. The project results from a collaboration with Mathieu Ehrsam, multimedia Designer to produce a graphical interpretation of portraits devoted to professionals of the economic world who seek with the curators durable solutions in the life of Objects of public collections entrusted to them. [Kml_flashembed Publishmethod = "static" Fversion = "8.0.0" movie = "" width = "800" height = "600" Targetclass = "Flashmovie"] Mr. Brovelli is an average mountain hiking companion, based in Seyne-les-Alpes in the Alpes de Haute Provence. He became an accompanist in the mountains after exercising other professional activities, particularly in the culture at the General Council. Located on the "niche" of hikes combining culture and nature, it seeks to reconcile its interests for culture, nature and roaming. Since 2004, it offers stays from week end to week all inclusive. Positioned on "The art of Walking", its "refuges d'art" stays represent an important part of its activity. The preparation of this route as a hiking route requested a substantial tracking job. Investment necessary to identify the possibilities of supply, to identify possible shelters in case of bad weather and to evaluate the level of difficulty at best. How to make this specific positioning visible? How to maintain a professional activity that responds to the motivations that founded the creation of the company (sustainability)?   "Refuges d'art" is a proposal by artist Andy Goldsworthy to the geological reserve and the Gassendi Museum. The Gassendi Museum ensures the cultural engineering of the project "refuges d'art" and the geological reserve of Haute Provence Financial management. To manage contemporary art proposals together, the museum and the reserve created the informal art Centre for Nature research – the CAIRN. The Musée Gassendi, Museum of France, hosts an average of 10,000 visitors a year and 3,000 school, its surface is 2,000 m2, its annual budget is 1.4 million euros and it has 10 employees. "Art huts" will eventually represent an increase in its permanent exhibition area equivalent to one sixth of that present. An additional cultural area in rural areas, in accordance with the objectives of the State for the years to come [2].

  • COOPERATIF Indicator N ° 1.1-efficiency [3]-Is this private public cooperation performing for the museum?
Sainte Madeleine Chapel 25 m2
Farm of Belon 47 m2
Thermal baths 15 m2
Col de Escuchière 36 m2
The old Esclandon 120 m2
River of Earth (museum) 50 m2
Total Out of museum 243 m2
Musée Gassendi 2000 m2

This "re-invented museum" seeks to be in direct contact with its territory, in particular by making the original collections of the Museum-Fine Arts and Sciences-and contemporary works of art from The policy of artistic residency implemented within the CAIRN. Nadine Gomez-Passamar, curator of the Gassendi Museum, directs and implements the cultural engineering of the "Refuges d'art" project. She has been involved in the project from the outset and continues to develop it today. She's artistic director of the CAIRN. Started in 2001, the project will eventually be a pedestrian itinerary of 150 kilometers and comprising 10 works by the artist. The buildings can accommodate people for a stopover, sometimes one night. The works, donations made to the city of Digne-Les-Bains by the artist in 2006, are the first "off the walls" to be accepted by the Commission des Musées de France. Each building is owned by Public – Commons, NFB – and each work is part of the permanent collection of the Gassendi Museum. Mr. Brovelli participates in the collective process of realization. It is approved by the geological reserve of Haute Provence and authorised by the Gassendi Museum.  He participated in the definition of the itinerary by accompanying some recognition steps with the artist, the museum staff and the reserve. This open and collective approach is a factor of sustainable development. In line with the Council of Europe's recommendations on cultural heritage and sustainable development, it promotes an integrated approach to policies on cultural, biological, geological and landscape diversity and promotes a Balance between these components [4]. The Council of Europe encourages the participation of everyone in the process of identification, study, interpretation, protection, conservation and presentation of cultural heritage. This project could be the support of an indicator of "partnership diversity" to measure the degree of territorial cohesion of the project. The AFNOR [5] proposes various possible degrees of participation in this sense ranging from simple information to effective participation. The Council of Europe adds the recognition of a right to heritage that combines the governance of sustainable development. The four components of sustainable development – culture, environment, economy and social – are associated through the project. Their degree of involvement evolves over time.

  • COOPERATIF indicator No. 2:-democratic governance [6] does this private public cooperation contribute to the inclusion of this alpine territory in sustainable development?
Dominant Partners Level of involvement
Economic Dimension Jean-Pierre Brovelli Consulted: Conception of the parcoursValorisé: proposal to stay. Museum clearance and Reserve accreditation.
Cultural Dimension Musée Gassendi PARTNER: CAIRN Convention
Ecological Dimension Geological Reserve PARTNER: CAIRN Convention
Citizen Dimension Common Informed: Report of the PATRIMOINEASSOCIÉ Regional agency: Site owner

Today this pedestrian itinerary for 12 days is part of the commercial offers of Jean-Pierre Brovelli. It plans in 2008 to accompany about sixty people on this route in groups of 8 persons.  If the economic fallout remains important, it does not represent its main interest. The most economical value is based on finding a clientele with whom to share "the Art of Walking". The realization of the itinerary "refuges d'art" remains limited: it is physically and mentally difficult for an attendant. On the other hand, offering this course makes it possible to make visible its position on "the Art of Walking". The search for information via the Internet in connection with the project "Refuges d'art" (Artist, project, CAIRN) generates two daily enquiries on its professional site. These people are sometimes potential customers for other offers offered. And those who have made the course remain permanently connected with him. This increase in the visibility of positioning reinforces the sustainability of the Business Project. Jean-Pierre Brovelli's entrepreneurial motivations structure the offer of stay combining culture, nature and roaming. Being able to find a "market" that is consistent with these motivations was a daring gamble that has been strengthened here. At fifty years and after a diversified professional career, this economic commitment is more the culmination of a personal project than the search for such a gainful activity.

  •  COOPERATIF Indicator No. 3.1 – Economic valuation [7] is this private public cooperation effective for Jean Pierre Brovelli?
Problem More value heritage.
To make visible a position on "The art of walking" combining culture, nature and roaming. 2 requests for daily information via the internet linked to "refuges d'art".
Find a "market" in coherence with entrepreuneuriales motivations. Development of an offer and identification of a request in coherence with the entrepreuneuriales motivations.

 A work of contemporary art accessible in the wilderness, "refuges d'art" is a vector of sustainable development for the mountain. At the end of 2007, the municipality of Digne-Les-Bains commissioned a study on the economic and social benefits of the project to the Regional heritage Agency P.A.C.A.  At mid-term, the purpose was to produce data on the impacts generated by the project in terms of its implementation costs. This important study work carried out during the summer of 2007 allows to have a first measure of the economic and social impact of "refuges d'art" in Haute Provence. It represents 4.7% of tourists in addition to the country Digne – that they come especially for the discovery of the works of Andy Goldsworthy and/or the works of contemporary art – more than 30,000 annual nights, a tourist consumption valued at 1.6 Million euros per year and 131 jobs in the country Digne. Impact to be put on an investment of around EUR 90,000 per year, excluding the participation of museum and reserve staff-7 posts are directly involved. This rate of return on investment is consistent and seems sustainable.

  •  COOPERATIF indicator No. 3.2 – Economic valuation-does this private public cooperation contribute to the economic development of this alpine territory?
Results study Regional heritage Agency P.A.C.A. People who have come to discover the works of Andy Goldsworthy and/or the works of contemporary art
% of tourists in the country Digne 4.7%
Number of Annual nights 31 025
Tourist consumption EUR 1.6 million
Number of jobs in the country Digne 131 Jobs
Average annual direct cost of the project 90 000 euros (non-staff Museum and Reserve)
Return on investment rate Estimated to be 17 times higher than the annual investment

The Regional heritage agency foresees a minimum growth of 8.8% of the annual attendance, well beyond the target of 1.9% set for the plastic arts throughout the territory by the State [8]. Within 5 years, 8,000 visitors to minima, not far from the 10,000 visitors of the museum Gassendi, first stage of the course. A significant cultural value for a rural territory: Digne-les-Bains, Departmental prefecture, has 18,000 inhabitants, 30,000 at the country level [9].

  •  COOPERATIF indicator No. 1.2-effectiveness-is this private public cooperation performing for the museum?
Number of people
Discovery of the works of Andy Goldsworthy and/or the works of contemporary art 5 5008 000 at the end of the project in 5 years (estimation)
Musée Gassendi 10 000 (average)
Annual growth rate of attendance + 8.5% (minima, regional heritage Agency study)
LOLF, Mission Culture, creation, Objective 3 + 1.9% (average per year by 2010)

 The difficulty lies in the fact that this economic recovery remains beneficial for the Digne country and is not at the expense of the spirit of the project. It is a matter of inventing the modalities of access adapted to its originality. Modalities that the museum had planned to develop once the project came to term and relayed to the general public, that is to say best in 5 years. The increasing fame of the artist at international level, the publication of articles in the National press – Telerama, Alpes Magazine-, the already effective use by local actors in the framework of their activity – hiking guide, tourist office – make The art huts are already frequented. As the study of the Regional heritage agency confirmed, there is not a single "canal" that leads to discover "Art huts": Internet, word of mouth, media. All communication and information activities cannot be carried out or self-financed: topo-guide, Access card, press review, book, website, audio guide, etc. For example, the IGN estimated the cost of making a map specific to the "refuges d'art" route at 50,000 euros. Relatively large Budget with regard to the 150,000 euros required on average by shelter. Today, the Gassendi Museum co-builds information and communication modalities with local partners. These co-productions are as numerous as the possible access modalities: A room dedicated to the museum in collaboration with the artist, a topo-guide book published by the Fage Edition, the formation of a new accompanist by Jean-Pierre Brovelli and the Proposal of a dozen hiking trips. Of all these actions, the Gassendi Museum finances 30% of the costs of implementation, the remainder being taken over by the partners [10]. Other co-produced projects are underway such as a press review with the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence development agency or that carried out by the Tourist office on the creation of an audio guide or the use of an association of Porters for Make shelters accessible to people with reduced mobility. The Internet sites-that of the refuges, the museum, the reserve and Jean-Pierre Brovelli, first in terms of consultation-will allow to download the access sheets made by the museum or direct to the book of Editions Fage. Attendance of the public will increase – forecast of 8,000 visitors to minima within 5 years-, the sources of information also (6 new media foreseen in 2008) and the tourist offer will gain in quality and attractiveness. With a mastery of the budget since, although all costs are difficult to assess accurately, the contribution of the project partners can be estimated at two-thirds of the total cost, which is more than the 48% of own resources that Targets the state by 2010 for museums.

  •  Indicator COOPERATIF No. 3:-Efficiency [11]-In a context of control of public expenditure, does it contribute to finding the resources necessary to qualify the accessibility of works in open access?


Contribution to the funding of the accessibility function 2008
Musée Gassendi 30
Jean-Pierre Brovelli 23
Fage Edition 47%
LOLF indicator: Share ressources propresObjectif en 2006 for FranceProgression Museums by 2010  43% + 5%


 Action Partner Realization Cost
Information space Musée Gassendi Equipment of a new room  15 000 € 30
Topo Guide Fage Edition Production (22% PVTTC)  16 500 € 47%
3000 works sold at 25 euros TTC Diffusion distribution of half (18% PVTTC)  6 750 €
New Attendant Qualification Jean – Pierre Completion of a training course (10 days)  1 600 € 23
Animation website (Request information)  Brovelli Annual update, follow-up (1 day/month)  1 600 €
Group support 9 proposed stays (50 days)  8 000 €
 49 450 €

The regulation of the relationship between these different actors of the project is based on a relationship of trust, and to a lesser extent in a discounted way (municipalities, providers: Guide, hosters, etc). The works are part of the collections of the museum, the building is communal property or the NFB, and the geological reserve of Haute Provence, Association Law 1901, manages these domains. If this situation promotes freedom of action for each member, it depends strongly on the personalities who animate the project. The increasing economic weight of "Art huts" in the local economy, the increase in attendance, the creation of new shelters or the arrival of new actors (tourist Office, escorts) may weaken this balance. It raises a number of important new issues in view of the progress of the project: how to find a regulatory framework adapted to multi-faceted private public cooperation? How to keep an open process without losing the spirit of the project? How can we not freeze the situation? What would be the current regulatory arrangements in the event of a dispute? Additional Sources:

  • Gassendi Museum website:
  • Site of the Geological reserve of Haute Provence:
  • Site of Jean-Pierre Brovelli:
  • "Refuges d'art" Site:
  • Site of the Regional heritage Agency:
  • Council of Europe Website:
  • Site of the LOLF:

Source of diagnosis This diagnosis was made mainly from the following elements:

  • 1 Interview with Nadine Gomez-Passamar, curator of the Gassendi Museum and Jean-Pierre Brovelli, hiking guide;
    • Presentation Document for the CAIRN project;
    • Internet search on sites associated with the promotion of the CAIRN;
    • The economic impact study of the CAIRN carried out by the Regional heritage Agency-2007;
    • The LOLF documents on performance indicators;
    • The Council of Europe's "Faro" framework convention.


[1] The 200 000 hectares of the geological reserve of Haute Provence make it the largest in Europe.
[2] The LOLF, mission Culture, plans to measure the share of additional m2 constructed in rural areas compared to the total number of M2 built in the year. The indicator is currently only for libraries.
[3] This indicator aims to measure the effectiveness of cooperation following an indicator identified within those of the LOLF. That is, the ability of an administration to achieve the objectives corresponding to its missions. The objective of the LOLF indicator is to be able to compare the effectiveness of the cooperative process with other experiences and the target set by the state for the years to come.
4 "Faro" Council of Europe framework Convention, article 8 – Environment, heritage and quality of life
[5] The French Association for Standardization – AFNOR – published in 2006 the SD 21000 applied to local authorities-a Guide for taking into account the issues of sustainable development in the strategy and management of local and regional authorities.
[6] This indicator is intended to measure the involvement of members of society on heritage issues. This is a proposal for a possible new indicator.
[7] This indicator measures the impact of heritage on the economic activity of the company, or even the territory. The report on the economy of the intangible. "Tomorrow's Growth" (Department of Finance, 2006) called for an interest in the benefits of exploiting "our history, Geography or territories". And which gave the creation in April 2007 of the Agency of the Intangible Heritage of the State (FIPA). It is a question of being able to estimate and compare the impact of shared valuation of heritage.
[8] LOLF, Mission Culture, creation, objective No. 3
[9] Methodological clarifications: Data Sources: The study carried out by the Regional heritage Agency, data 2003 on tourism in countries Digne, source site country Digne. Mode of calculation of the indicator: the study of the Regional heritage agency has not given, for lack of existing sources, estimation in numbers of people who come especially for the discovery of works of Andy Goldsworthy and/or works of art Contemporary. It is possible to have a first estimate from the average length of stay estimated at 5.6 days by the country Digne and the 31 025 nights calculated by the regional heritage Agency. The estimate is then 5 460 people. The only existing data is the "2 491 visitors on 3 refuges" of the count carried out in the summer 2007 (4 months) by the geological reserve of Haute Provence. 
[10] Methodological clarifications: Data Sources: Data were collected during the interview with Nadine Gomez-Passamar and Jean-Pierre Brovelli. method of calculating the indicator: for the new room at the Gassendi Museum, only direct costs are taken into account. The cost of manufacturing the book is calculated from the apportionment of average costs compared to the public sales price TTC (National Union of Publishers-SNE: manufacture 11%, author 11%). The edition is planned on a draw of 3000 copies sold at 25 euros public price (PVTTC). Fage Edition will ensure distribution of 1500 copies, the other half being sold directly by the museum. This coûtde diffusion distribution is estimated at 18% of the PVTTC (average SNE). The cost calculation supported by Jean-Pierre Brovelli is based on a day cost of 160 euros. The updating of the site and the response to sometimes technical requests represent one day per month (10 days per year). The cost of training a second attendant is estimated on the number of days required (complete the entire course, i.e. 10 day). And 9 stays are offered in 2008 for a total duration of 50 days.
[11] This indicator aims to measure the efficiency of cooperation following an indicator identified within those of the LOLF. That is to put in perspective the means deployed and the results set (value-for-money). The objective of relying on a LOLF indicator is to be able to compare the efficiency of cooperative processes with other experiences and with the target that the state has set for years to come.  
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