Prosper Wanner Diagnostics # 3: The Carmelite Cave – between historical Monument and source of sustainable development

Third portrait carried out in the context of the 3 diagnostics of innovative patrimonial cooperation on behalf of the AGCCPF PACA. We denounce the tourist or exotic heritage uses erected as a model. We propose to affirm "the heritage of all": Shared individual histories and common historical destiny without discrimination or exclusion. Extract Charter of the Mediterranean common heritage. AGCCPF PACA 2000. Preamble in order to protect the heritage threatened by the conversion underway in the Marseille hinterland, in 1994, the city of Marseille initiated an experimental integrated conservation mission. Since 2006, the reconversion of the perimeter of the Carmelite cave, one of the few historical Monuments of the Marseille hinterland, has accelerated. This perimeter of 72 hectares is at the heart of a sensitive urban area where the National Urban Renewal Agency – ANRU has recently intervened strongly. In the Face of this urgency, to lead the mission of integrated heritage – to identify, interpret, preserve, value – those who are directly concerned are strongly involved in the mission: inhabitants, businesses and associations. The diagnosis proposes to situate this cooperation, to understand the reasons and to measure the first results obtained. In order to measure and compare the impact of these private public cooperation, it is essential to use a common indicator system.  The diagnosis refers above all to the new indicators used in the framework of the Organic Law on the Finance laws of August 1, 2001-LOLF. These are the performance indicators of the State vis-à-vis the taxpayer, the user and the citizen. It proposes to answer the following questions: What are the reasons for this cooperation? Does it contribute to the current conversion? To the valorisation of the historical Monument?  In a context of controlling public spending, does it contribute to finding the necessary resources for the integrated Heritage Mission? Does it anchor economic actors more in sustainable development?

Name Integrated Heritage Experimental Mission Chimitex S.A.
Status Mission, City of Marseille Limited Company
Location Marseille, 15iéme and 16iéme Headquarters: St Laurent du VarUsine: Marseille, les Aygalades
Person met Conservative, 1st Class President and Chief Executive Officer
Number of employees 1 70 employees including 18 in the SOAP factory
Visitors number 2007 1000 400
Resources 2007 75,000 euros, estimation part Ville 14 million euros in turnover.

Virtual Expo in 2007, the Association of curators of the public collections of France section Paca (AGCCPF Paca) has launched an international invitation to young graphic designers from schools or in the course of training to dialogue on the news of Stakes in their trades. Curators and graphic designers are looking for the most suitable forms for the new forms of cooperation indispensable in the symbolic space today. The guest of the Virtual Expo 2007 was Marion Arnoux. She has just come out of the design school of Saint-Etienne and participates in the experimental structure IRB Laboratory, under the responsibility of Denis Coueignoux and Ruedi Baur. The project results from a collaboration with Mathieu Ehrsam, multimedia Designer to produce a graphical interpretation of portraits devoted to professionals of the economic world who seek with the curators durable solutions in the life of Objects of public collections entrusted to them. [Kml_flashembed Publishmethod = "static" Fversion = "8.0.0" movie = "" width = "800" height = "600" Targetclass = "Flashmovie"] Mr. Latour is the chief executive officer of Chimitex S.A., a limited company based in Saint Laurent du Var, whose main activity is the processing and packaging of cleaning products and maintenance textiles. In 2006, it had 70 employees and achieved a turnover of more than 14 million euros. In 1995 she acquired the soap factory of the Midi then in a situation of judicial recovery. The SOAP factory, located in the district of Aygalades in the north of Marseille, housed in the XIV iéme century a mill, starting from 1870 a flour mill, then the manufacturing plant of Couscous Garbit before becoming in 1920 one of the 108 soap factories existing at this Period in Marseille. For economic and standards reasons, the so-called "cauldron" activity has been halted to maintain only that related to formulation and transformation. The presence of the immense cauldrons, grain sieves and other equipment still bears witness to past activities. Marseille SOAP, a product recognized as effective, economical and natural, has experienced a renewed interest on the part of consumers in recent years. This renewal and the existence of a functional production equipment, too costly to the creation, have strongly conditioned the maintenance of the activity on the spot. Mr. Latour is anxious to register the economic development of Chimitex S.A. From a sustainable development perspective. The promotion of a recognized natural product, the Marseille soap, and the maintenance of economic exploitation in a sensitive neighbourhood are for him entrepreneurial motives that count in his decision making. Today it claims the ability of its company to have hitherto assumed without external AIDS parity, diversity and protection of the environment. remained to be permanently placed in a highly competitive market. Marseille soap is not a controlled appellation of origin. Of the hundred Marseille factories of the last century, only three remain active. Many SMEs rely on the renewal of Marseille soap to support their sales by associating it with essential oils or plant extracts. More than 80% of the production is carried out abroad as in Germany, Greece, Italy or Turkey. The soap factory of the Midi today produces 2500 tons of soap that it flows at national level (10% export). Unlike many local SMEs, it does not have its own outlets and has to face strong competition to access the sales front of large distribution centers. How to differentiate in a very competitive market? How to find new business opportunities? How do you value your choice of location? The Cave hermitage of Carmes is a historical Monument, classified in 1994 under the number PA00081517. The SOAP factory is located within its protective perimeter. The quality of the water that led the Carmelites to come and settle in the caves is the one that allowed the production of a high quality soap. In the twelfth century, the Carmelite order settled in this ancient hermitage, which originated in the 5th century. The 500 metres of its heritage perimeter, or 72 hectares, have been included in the large urban renewal area of the 15th and 16th arrondissement of Marseille for several years. The heritage perimeter encompasses other caves buried in 1933 by the A7 motorway, the city of social housing the niches, the Montleric condominium, the Midi soap factory, the Bee factory re-invested by the City of Street Arts, The important Provencal bastide la Guillermy has recently been abandoned and the "green flow" of the Aygalades Brook. The modification of this protected perimeter "in conversion" has accelerated with the launch of the construction of the city of the street arts, the amplification of the degradation of the Bastide la Guillermy and the Cave of the Carmelite, the intervention of the agency National urban renewal on the cities of the niches and the Viste (ANRU) and the prospect of shaving the whole of social habitat the niches. How to reconcile the conservation of this "historic terroir" while contributing to the necessary economic conversion of these districts? How to become a force for proposals? The experimental Integrated Conservation mission was initiated in 1994 by the city of Marseille, the university, the CNFPT and the Council of Europe. The municipality makes available a full-time curator and the scientific guardianship is assumed by the Council of Europe. This process is renewed until today within the framework of the city/State Conventions on urban planning. The experimental perimeter is that of the large Urban Project (GPU), which became a major city project (GPV), which encompasses the 15th and 16th arrondissement of Marseille. Christine Breton, first class curator of the city of Marseille, at the origin of this process, has since been responsible for its implementation. In connection with the Council of Europe, it has been implementing its recommendations on the integrated heritage approach for more than ten years on the ground [1]. The Carmelite Cave is one of the few points of support under heritage legislation on these two boroughs which bring together 11% of the population of Marseille and "only" 4 historical monuments on the 72 that the city counts. To build concrete proposals that start from the present cultural heritage, Christine Breton has partnered with the "Heritage Network of the Carmelite Valley" of private organizations – associations, companies, independents-present on the perimeter Heritage. These associations, these companies, these collectives of inhabitants are asked to give their time and means to the implementation of the heritage process. Whether in the form of participation in monthly workshops, data collection or material supply, the process has been implemented. Chimitex S.A. is part of this ten structures involved in the same way as the Aygalades District Interest Committee, the parish or city of the street arts. They are involved in the tracing, identification, interpretation or development of the heritage resources of the site, whether natural – identification of the source of water, the paths – cultural – existence of know-how, collection of Testimonials – or material – search for equipment, images. The public record of a year of work is done each year through a "heritage ballad" during the European Heritage days. The Carmelite cave, difficult to reach and in poor condition, has been open for three years to the public once a year on these European heritage days. A stroll through the meetings in situ with those of the network: entrepreneurs, inhabitants, institutional actors, artists and associative leaders. From 40 visitors the first year, it is 400 people who did the ballad in 2007.  

Year Number of participants Press Articles Network Partner Structures
2005 40 0 1
2006 200 1 4
2007 400 7 20

  Mr. Latour participates annually in the European days of valorisation of this heritage. In 2007 he opened the factory and he and employees brought their testimony to the 400 people present.  Today, he is pursuing fruitful heritage research on the site and on the subject of Marseille soap. The first reason concerns the visibility of its economic positioning. Chimitex S.A. Presents its brand "master soap of Marseille" as one of the last two distributed nationally whose products have been manufactured in Marseille according to traditional methods and recipes for more than a century. It enshrines its activity in the continuity of the millennial manufacture of Oriental soaps, which has continued and developed in Marseille since the Colbert Edit of 1688. And in the continuity of use of quality water, that of the Aygalades, valued by the Romans and then the Carmelites. It seeks to value the quality of its production by registering it in a historical continuity. Today Mr. Latour has created his own brand: Soap from the Carmelite Valley and claims Marseille soap made in Marseille. The second reason is the opening up of new economic opportunities. The participation in the European Heritage Day of 2007 showed him the interest existing for his approach (400 visitors). Today the company receives monthly groups of visitors and plans to develop a localised point of sale articulated to a space "museum" in connection with an association of soap enthusiasts of Marseille. It wants to be able to capture a local clientele and to drain some of the potential of customers linked to the activity of cruises. At present none of the routes that the thousands of cruise carry out every week from the Port of Marseille provide for a visit to the northern districts of Marseille. The company wishes to participate in the creation of an offer of this nature.   COOPERATIF indicator No. 1 – Economic valuation [2]-does private public cooperation contribute to anchoring economic actors in sustainable development?

Problem More value heritage.
To make visible a position placed in the perspective of sustainable development. Inscription of the production in a historical continuity – soap of Marseille, water of the Aygalades. Creation of a brand "soap of the Carmelite Valley".
Develop a short chain of development and marketing of production. Opening of a sales/exhibition space at the factory positioned on the European cultural itinerary project. Project to create a "museum" space.

  With regard to public policy, the presence of a historic Monument, even degraded and inaccessible, in an urban area in reconversion is an asset. Its integrated approach makes it a source of sustainable development. The State is committed to making the environment for people living in a sensitive urban area as pleasant as in the rest of the commune. And this by making greater efforts in the area of the development of external spaces, the enhancement of the environment and cultural supply [3]. The Ministry of Culture must in this context increase its intervention effort in the priority urban areas and further orient its subsidized actions to territories where the population is for social, cultural or Geographical distance from cultural offerings [4]. With the target, an effort made towards priority areas that is more important than the general effort. The heritage perimeter of the Carmelite cave is at the heart of these neighbourhoods, which experience significant territorial imbalances in terms of quality of life (noise nuisance, pollution), cultural supply, travel patterns and living environment ( Habitat, Public spaces.). Through the Heritage network of Vallon des Carmes, it is 6 000 people who are concerned by this cultural policy throughout the year. They contribute directly or indirectly, whether they are present or represented in the workspaces, requested for the collection of data and their interpretation or invited to benefit from this work during the European days of Heritage. Or 9% of the population of the borough and 0.8% of Marseille, which is directly concerned by this cultural policy [5].

Organizations Members Estimate number of people
Aygalades and Saint Louis District Interest Committee 100 Traders and inhabitants 200
Association of Friends of Aygalades 200 families 800
Social Center 1000 families 4000
Cities of the street arts 7 Cultural structures 100
Catholic and Armenian parishes 1000 families 4000
Chimitex SA 18 Employees 18
Inhabitants quoted from the Aygalades 10 families 40
Collective Les Niche Markets 100 families 400

At the level of the financial effort, the action on the Carmelite Valley represents 50% of the budget committed via the Integrated Heritage Mission (a post of curator), a budget that can be estimated at 38 000 euros. This is 5 euros per capita concerned and represents 0.03% of the city's Budget. The city of Marseille with 820 900 inhabitants (data 2005) and a Culture budget of 116 million euros (2007) spends an average of 141.31 euros per inhabitants. COOPERATIF Indicator N ° 2-efficiency [6]does private public cooperation contribute to the ongoing conversion?

City of Marseille, Culture Integrated Heritage Mission 15/16th. Process of the Carmelite Valley ZUS 15th South. Consolate, Viste, Aygalades
Inhabitants 820 900 89 800 6 000 19 264
% 100% 10.9% 0.8% 2.3%
Historical Monuments 72 4 1 1
% 100% 5.5% 1.4%
Museums 14 0 0 0
Budget 116 000 000 euros 75 000 euros 38 000 euros 36 000 000 euros (ANRU project)
% 100% 0.06% 0.03%


[1] On 27 October 2005 in Faro, the closing conference of the 50th anniversary of the European Cultural Convention culminated in a framework convention on the value of cultural heritage for society. The so-called "Faro Convention" and in the process of ratification, its article 10 "cultural heritage and economic activity" alone sums up the stakes of the Council of Europe's involvement in this process. "In order to enhance the potential of cultural heritage as a factor for sustainable economic development, it calls on the parties to increase information on the economic potential of cultural heritage and to use it (…) To take into account the specific character and interests of cultural heritage in the development of economic policies; and to ensure that these policies respect the integrity of the cultural heritage without compromising its intrinsic values.
[2] This indicator measures the impact of heritage on the business's economic activity. It echoes the report on "the Economy of the intangible, the growth of Tomorrow" (Ministry of Finance, 2006) which called for an interest in the benefits to be drawn from the exploitation of "Our history, our geography or our territories". And which gave the creation in April 2007 of the Agency of the Intangible Heritage of the State (FIPA). It has the role of helping ministries, public administrations and local communities to optimize the management of their intangible heritage, to gain better value for them.
[3] LOLF, Mission City, Objective 2 (from the user's point of view): To improve the living environment of sensitive urban areas. Objective contributing to the transversal policy "city".
[4] LOLF, Mission culture, programme of knowledge Transmission and democratization of culture.
[5] Methodological clarifications: Data Sources: The data are those provided by Christine Breton. Only those structures that participated effectively in the European Heritage Days of September 2007 were taken into account: preparation, animation, communication. method of calculating the indicator: The number of persons was estimated by counting 4 people per family and 3 by cultural associations or businesses (50% CIQ members). Double counting was taken into account by removing 30% of the total. A total of 9500 persons counted, i.e. 6000 excluding double counting.
[6] This indicator aims to measure the effectiveness of cooperation following an indicator identified within those of the LOLF. That is, the ability of an administration to achieve the objectives corresponding to its missions established under the LOLF. The objective is to rely on a LOLF indicator to be able to compare efficiency to an average and target that the state has set for the years to come.
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